While the aim of the book is to highlight the change from tradition to modernity, Mártires Lopes sees change in the kinds of institutional transformations that were initiated as a result of Pombaline governance. The book does not offer us anything with regard to the sociological processes that are involved in the change between tradition and modernity, nor are these concepts defined. Pombaline reforms, situated as they were in the eighteenth century, are perhaps considered modernizing attempts, though whether society became modernized or whether the reforms were modernistic in themselves is anybody’s guess.
Centre for Historical Studies
Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi